Informal employment, employment discrimination and measures of human capital


The article presents the results of the empirical identification of individual observations of the human capital subjectivity, social exclusion in the labor market; and verifies the connection between these phenomena. The analysis is based on the results of sociological study “Social inequality: perception by Ukrainian society” conducted by the All-Ukrainian NGO “Sociological Association of Ukraine” with the support of the International Renaissance Foundation. Authors analyse manifestations of social exclusion in the labor market, such as informal employment and employment discrimination, as well study  the link between the subjectivity of human capital (availability of experience in courses, seminars, trainings during the last three years) and definite manifestations of rejection on the labor market. The results of the analysis showed that the more active a person is in acquiring knowledge, skills and abilities (human capitula), to a lesser extent he/she is vulnerable to the employment discrimination and is rarely involved in informal labor relations.

  1. Tikhonova, N.E. (2002). Social exclusion in Russian society. Obshchestvennye nauki isovremennost – Social Sciences and Contemporary World, 6, 5-17 [in Russian]

  2. Levitas, R., Pantazis, C., Fahmy, E., Gordon, D., Lloyd, E., Patsios, D. (2007). The multi-dimensional analysis of social exclusion. URL:

  3. Hong, P.Y.P., Pandey, S. (2008). Differential Effects of Human Capital on the Poor and Near-Poor: Evidence of Social Exclusion. Journal of Poverty, 12, 4, 456-480. DOI:

  4. Čiutienė, R., Meilienė, E., Savanevičienė, A., Vaitkevičius, S. (2015). Interdependence between human capital and the power of a shadow economy: Lithuanian case study. Technological and Economic Development of Economy, 21, 3, 460-482. DOI:

  5. Melamed, T. (1995). Barriers to Women’s Career Success: Human Capital, Career Choices, Structural Determinants, or Simply Sex Discrimination. Applied psychology, 44, 4, 295-314. DOI:

  6. Radaev, V.V. (2002). Term of Capital, Forms of Capitals and their Conversion. Ekonomicheskaya Sotsiologiya – Journal of Economic Sociology, 3, 4, 20-32 [in Russian]

  7. Cf. Robert, C. Solomon. (2005). Subjectivity. In Ted Honderich (Ed.), Oxford Companion to Philosophy. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

  8. Allen, Amy. (2002). Power, Subjectivity, and Agency: Between Arendt and Foucault. International Journal of Philosophical Studies, 10 (2), 131-149. DOI:

  9. Libanova, E., Cymbal, A., Lisogor, L., Marchenko, I., Iarosh, O. (2014). The transition to the labor market of Ukrainian youth. International Labor Office, Youth Employment Program, Employment Policy Department. Geneva: ILO [in Ukrainian]

  10. Distribution risks and ways to minimize shadow employment in Ukraine. The National Institute for Strategic Studies. URL: files/tinyova_zaynatist-71558.pdf [in Ukrainian]

  11. Tensions on the Ukrainian labor market: factors, social consequences and ways to overcome. The National Institute for Strategic Studies. URL: [in Ukrainian]

  12. Budnyk, A.Y., Kolokolova, M.O., Shcherban, S.V. (2011). Labor discrimination against elderly: results of the sociological study. Kharkiv: Kharkiv Institute for Social Researches [in Ukrainian]

Full text