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Multiculturalism as a strategy for solving cultural diversity problems: theoretical models analysis

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The introduction presents research subject theoretical models of multiculturalism. Outlined goal is the disclosure of these models content with the aim of finding the optimal in the context of solving cultural diversity issues in modern world, including the Ukrainian society. The main part describes analysis of theoretical models of “hard” multiculturalism by W. Kymlicka and “soft” multiculturalism by Ch. Kukathas. It is shown that the “hard” model insists on mandatory regulatory support of cultural groups to its maximum capacity in order to preserve its identity and traditions. This means not only subsidizing their operations, but also provision of the legal and political guarantees against discrimination and any adverse conditions. The state should also care of cultural groups adhere to fundamental civil rights that liberal system provides to all individuals.

It is proved that the basic principle of “soft” multiculturalism model is the tolerance of otherness without the need for its mandatory and special cultivation. People do not need to adhere to the values, which they share, and are not forbidden to live according to the principles dear to them. The presence of other cultures and traditions considered tolerant, even if these traditions, even if they are not consistent with liberal values.

The conclusions point out the possibilities of finding an optimal multiculturalism model for each society. Modern states must find the balance between freedom and equality of citizens regardless of their ethnic, religious, racial differences, preserve consolidating traditions and norms of civic identity and citizenship institute.

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