Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

Historic-theoretical analysis of the Bogardus scale


In this article Bogardus scale is analyzed, also the history of its origin and formation can be traced in the works of G.Zimmel, R.Park, E.Bogardus, its adaptation by N.Panina and the meaning of the social distance concept is revealed. In connection to this, features and limits of scale usage are concerned, and the ways of its improvement for the usage in modern Ukrainian society are presented.

  1. Golovakha, E., Drobizheva, L. (Eds.). (2007). Natsionalnaya identichnost i tolerantnost v Ukraine. In Natsionalno-grazhdanskie identichnosti i tolerantnost (pp. 43-68). Kiev [in Russian]

  2. Golovakha, E.I. (1994). Sotsialnoe bezumie. Istoriya, teoriya i sovremennaya praktika. Kiev: Abris [in Russian]

  3. Pavlenko, V.M. (1999). Etnopsykholohiia: Kyiv: Sfera [in Ukrainian]

  4. Panina, N. (2003). Shchodo zastosuvannia shkaly sotsialnoi dystantsii u doslidzhenniakh natsionalnoi tolerantnosti v Ukraini. Sotsiologiya: teoriya, metody, marketing – Sociology: theory, methods, marketing, 4, 21-43 [in Ukrainian]

  5. Paniotto, V. (2003). Dynamika ksenofobii v Ukraini, 1994–2002. Sotsiologiya: teoriya, metody, marketing – Sociology: theory, methods, marketing, 3, 74-92 [in Ukrainian]

  6. Sereda, V.V. (2007). Etnosotsiolohiia. Lviv [in Ukrainian]

  7. Vorona, V., Shulha, M. (Eds.). (2008). Ukrainske suspilstvo 1992–2008. Sotsiolohichnyi monitorynh.  Kyiv [in Ukrainian]

  8. Albarracin, D., Johnson, B.T., Zanna, M.P. (2005). The handbook of attitudes. London.

  9. Bethlehem, D.W. (1985). A Social Psychology of Prejudice. New York: St Martin’s Paris.

  10. Emory, S., Bogardus, E.S. (1925). Measuring Social Distances. Journal of Applied Sociology, 9, 299-308.

  11. Bogardus, E.S. (1933). A Social Distance Scale. Sociology and Social Research, 17, 265-271.

  12. Brown, R. (1995). Prejudice: It’s Social Psychology. Rupert Brown. Oxford : Blackwell Publishing, XV.

  13. Cashmore, E., Adam, H. (Eds.). (1994). Dictionary of race and ethnic relations. London: Routledge XVII.

  14. Driedger, L., Peters, J. (2008). Identity and social distance: towards understanding Simmels The Stranger. Canadian Review of Sociology – Revue canadienne de sociologie, 14, 2, 158-173.

  15. Ehrlich, H.J. (1973). The Social Psychology of Prejudice: A Systematic Theoretical Review and Propositional Inventory of the American Social Psychological Study of Prejudice. New York: Wiley, XII.

  16. Ethington, P.J. (2007). The Intellectual Construction of Social Distance: Toward a Recovery of Georg Simmel’s Social Geometry. In Cybergeo: Epistemology, History, Teaching, 30. URL:

  17. Frisby, D. (1992). Simmel and Since: Essays on George Simmel‘s Sociological Theory David Frisby. London: Routledge.

  18. Levine, D.N., Ellwood, B.C., Gorman, E.M. (1976). Simmel’s influence on American sociology. American Journal of Sociology, 81, 813-845.

  19. Park, R.E. (1924). The Concept of Social Distance As Applied to the Study of Racial Attitudes and Racial Relations. Journal of Applied Sociology, 8, 339-344.

  20. Pettigrew, T.F. (1982). Prejudice. Selections from the Harvard encyclopedia of American ethnic groups. Cambridge, MA: Belknap Press.

  21. Simmel, G. (1950). The Sociology of Georg Simmel. Glencoe, Ill.: Free Press, IX.

  22. Shaw, M.E. (1967). Scales for the measurement of attitudes. New York: McGraw-Hill, XXI.

  23. Triandis, H.D. (1968). Some studies of Social Distance. Attitude, ego-involvement, and change. New York: Wiley, X.

Full text