Value foundations of active civic engagement as an expression of social inclusion in the modernization process


Based on a modernization model by R. Inglehart and C. Welzel the factors and value determinants of active civic engagement in Ukraine are identified and compared to selected European countries. Using data from the third (1999–2001), and the fourth (2008–2010) waves of the European Values Study (EVS) as well as the fifth wave (2005–2007) of the World Values Survey (WVS), the political, civic and social types of participation are studied as elements of active civic engagement. Comparative analysis includes four European societies with different development paths, namely Ukraine, Germany, Russia and Poland.

It is argued in the article that the active position of social agents and their inclusion in social life determine success of modernization. Since according to the model by R. Inglehart and C. Welzel, value change is the key part of the modernization process, study of the emancipative values influence on active civic engagement can clarify development prospects of Ukrainian society. The findings of the research indicate that emancipative values are a determinants of active position in Ukrainian political sphere, although they do not have significant influence on civic and social participation. Low rates of activity in civic and social spheres induce insufficient level of solidarity, trust and self-government in Ukraine. On the way of building competitive economy and effective institutions it is necessary to stimulate development of NGOs, community integration, volunteering and mutual help behavior.

Practical recommendations for public authorities are proposed in order to optimize this process by raising the level of solidarity, trust and self-government in society.

  1. Sen, A. (2004). Development as a freedom. Moscow: Novoe izdatel’stvo [in Russian]

  2. Berger, P. (1990). The concept of modernity. Socis – Sociological Studies, 7, 131-132 [in Russian]

  3. Shtompka, P. (1996). Sociology of Social Change. Moscow: Aspekt Press [in Russian]

  4. Touraine, A. (2009). Thinking differently. Cambridge, Malden, Mass: Polity Press.

  5. Marshall, T.H. (1950). Citizenship and social class and other essays. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

  6. Turner, B.S. (2001). The erosion of citizenship. British Journal of Sociology, 52, 2, 189-209.

  7. Saveliev, Yu.B. (2013). Participation as expression of social inclusion in the modernization process: Ukraine in the European context (1999–2010). Ukr. socìumUkrainian society, 2, 77-98 [in Ukrainian]

  8. Wallace, C., Pichler, F., Haerpfer, C. (2012). Changing patterns of civil society in Europe and America 1995– 2005. Is Eastern Europe Different? East European Politics and Societies, 26, 1, 3-19.

  9. Newton, K., Montero, J.R. (2007). Patterns of political and social participation in Europe. In R. Jowell, C. Roberts, R. Fitzgerald, G.E. Editors (Eds.), Measuring Attitudes Cross-Nationally: Lessons from the European Social Survey (pp. 205-238). London: Sage.

  10. Welzel, C., Inglehart, R., Klingemann, H-D. (2003). The theory of human development: a cross-cultural analysis. European Journal of Political Research, 42, 341-379.

  11. Inglehart, R., Welzel, Ch. (2005). Modernization, Cultural Change and Democracy: The Human Development Sequence. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

  12. Savelyev, Yu.B. (2013). Value measurement of the social development: contradictions in the change values of the modernization process. In V.I. Sudakov, O.D. Kutsenko (Eds.), Proceedings of the 9th All-Ukrainian Scientific and Practical Conference, 2 November, 2012 (Kyiv) (pp. 34-41). Kyiv: Logos [in Ukrainian]

  13. EVS. European Values Study 1981–2008, Longitudinal Data File. GESIS Data Archive, Cologne, Germany, ZA4804 Data File Version 2.0.0 (2011–12–30).

  14. WVS. World Value Survey 1981–2008 official aggregate v.20090901, 2009. World Values Survey Association. URL:

Full text