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State policy of export stimulation: historical experience of the late 19th – early 20th century

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The article is devoted to the urgent problem of improving the efficiency of country’s export policy in terms of foreign trade restrictions. Author generalized the historical experience of domestic public policy stimulating exports in the late 19th – early 20th century; searched for opportunities in using the positive achievements of this experience to improve the current export policy of Ukraine.

The author considers the main measures of national economic policy to stimulate exports that were made by governments led I.Vyshnehradsky, S.Vitte and P.Stolypin. Main attention is paid to analysis of the implementation mechanisms, effectiveness and socio-economic effects of fiscal, customs, tariff and organizational measures of trade policy aimed at increasing exports of agricultural products. The reasons of backwardness of the domestic economy from the leading economies in the case of increasing volumes and revenues from agricultural exports are analyzed and examples of promising export promotion in developed countries are found.

The author concludes the inexpediency of forcing agricultural exports by increasing the taxes for small producers and proclaims the danger of administrative-and-premium methods to stimulate certain types of exports because of high risk of unwarranted social and economic costs and the growing structural imbalances in the economy. Article demonstrates the effectiveness of government’s organizational support to business to increase exports by the technical and technological providing of production, developing of market infrastructure objects and improving the institutional environment of entrepreneurship.

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