Papers describes the history of the formation of psychological distress sociology by the means of examining fundamental works of the psychological distress sociology founder – L. Pearlin, and modern researches presented in magazines, “Society and Mental Health” and “Journal of Health and Social Behavior”. L. Pearlin refers to the process of stress, consisting of stress sources (stressful events, chronic life difficulties and self-image), indirect resources (social support and combating stress practices), as well as stress outpouring. Special attention was paid to the relationship of stress and the life course of the individual.
Analysis of contemporary sources allows to draw three conclusions. First, most studies focused on psychological distress are quantitative in nature, using cross-sectional or longitudinal design. Second, the model of all empirical studies, in fact, is the same: psychological distress is a dependent variable, and various social factors – are independent ones. Third, research clearly demonstrates the measurement scales that are trusted at the present stage of scientific research (CES-D, K6, BSI-18). Author analyzed revised scheme of social stress proposed by C. Aneshensel and U. Mitchell (clarification are regarding the introduction to it of the indirect processes). The conclusion is made about the artificiality of linear logic type “stressor X in the life course of Y that leads to a stress response Z,” which is used in this and in similar schemes. Author suggests his own scheme of the stress process that is focused on the iteratively of various components and the importance of role of individual’s physical health. It is argued that conventional stressors, social interaction, personal characteristics (facilities, knowledge, behavior) and stress reactions are so closely interrelated that their separation from each other, when it comes to data of questionnaires, seems to be an impossible task.
Therefore, the stress response (primarily psychological) is not the result of a cause-and-effect relationship, but is one of the important indicators of individual well-being, which characterizes respondent’s the richness of life.
Rogers, A., Pilgrim, D. (2005). A Sociology of Mental Health and Illness. Berkshire: Open University Press.
Sapols’ku, P. (2015). Psychology of stress. Saint Petersburg: Piter [in Russian]
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Pearlin, L.I. (1959). Social and Personal Stress and Escape Television Viewing. Public Opinion Quarterly, 2, 255-259.
Pearlin, L.I., Schooler, C. (1978). The Structure of Coping. Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 1, 2-21.
Pearlin, L.I., Menaghan, E.G., Lieberman, M.A., Mullan, J.T. (1981). The Stress Process. Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 4, 337-356.
Pearlin, L.I. (1989). The Sociological Study of Stress. Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 3, 241-256.
Pearlin, L.I., Skaff, M.M. (1996). Stress and the Life Course: A Paradigmatic Alliance. The Gerontologist, 2, 239-247.
Pearlin, L.I., Schieman, S., Fazio, E.M., Meersman, S.C. (2005). Stress, Health, and the Life Course: Some Conceptual Perspectives. Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 2, 205-219.
Pearlin, L.I. (2010). The Life Course and the Stress Process: Some Conceptual Comparisons. The Journals of Gerontology. Series B: Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences, 2, 207-215.
McLeod, J.D. (2012). The Meanings of Stress. Society and Mental Health, 3, 172-186.
Aneshensel, C.S. (2015). Sociological Inquiry into Mental Health: The Legacy of Leonard I. Pearlin. Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 2, 1-13.
Aneshensel, C.S., Avison, W.R. (2015). The Stress Process: An Appreciation of Leonard I. Pearlin. Society and Mental Health, 2, 67-85.
Walls, M.L., Whitbeck, L.B. (2011). Distress among Indigenous North Americans. Society and Mental Health, 2, 124-136.
Song, L. (2011). Social Capital and Psychological Distress. Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 4, 478-492.
Glavin, P., Schieman, S., Reid, S. (2011). Boundary-Spanning Work Demands and Their Consequences for Guilt and Psychological Distress. Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 1, 43-57.
Bierman, A. (2012). Functional Limitations and Psychological Distress. Society and Mental Health, 1, 35-52.
Young, W.B., Foy, S.L. (2013). The Influence of Meaning-making after Spousal Loss on Trajectories of Psychological Distress. Society and Mental Health, 3, 187-202.
Oates, G.L., Goode, J. (2013). Racial Differences in Effects of Religiosity and Mastery on Psychological Distress. Society and Mental Health, 1, 40-58.
Alang, S.M., McAlpine, D.D., Henning-Smith, C.E. (2014). Disability, Health Insurance, and Psychological Distress among US Adults. Society and Mental Health, 3, 164-178.
Jacobs, A.W., Hill, T.D., Burdette, A.M. (2015). Health Insurance Status and Symptoms of Psychological Distress among Low-income Urban Women. Society and Mental Health, 1, 1-15.
Acevedo, G.A., Ellison, C.G., Xu, X. (2014). Is It Really Religion? Comparing the Main and Stress-buffering Effects of Religious and Secular Civic Engagement on Psychological Distress. Society and Mental Health, 2, 1-18.
Brown, T.N., Bell, M.L., Patterson, E.J. (2016). Imprisoned by Empathy: Familial Incarceration and Psychological Distress among African American Men in the National Survey of American Life. Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 2, 240–256.
Fothergill K., Ensminger M.E., Doherty E.E., Juon H.-S., Green K.M. (2016). Pathways from Early Childhood Adversity to Later Adult Drug Use and Psychological Distress: A Prospective Study of a Cohort of African Americans. Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 2, 223-239.
Torres, J.M., Alcántara, C., Rudolph, K.E., Viruell-Fuentes, E.A. (2016). Cross-border Ties as Sources of Risk and Resilience: Do Cross-border Ties Moderate the Relationship between Migration-related Stress and Psychological Distress for Latino Migrants in the United States? Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 4, 436-452.
Montazer, S., Wheaton, B. (2017). Economic Conditions in Countries of Origin and Trajectories in Distress after Migration to Canada. Society and Mental Health, 1, 1-20.
Burgard, S.A., Seelye, S. (2017). Histories of Perceived Job Insecurity and Psychological Distress among Older U.S. Adults. Society and Mental Health, 1, 1-15.
Gallagher, M. (2017). Obligatory and Voluntary Identity Discrepancies, Self-Evaluation, and Psychological Distress. Society and Mental Health, 2, 1-18.
Aneshensel, C.S., Mitchell, U.A. (2014). The stress process: its origins, evolution, and future. Sociology of Mental Health. Cham, Heidelberg, New York, Dordrecht, London: Springer International Publishing, 53-74.
Kitaev-Smyk, L. (2012). Organism and stress: the stress of life and the stress of death. Moscow: Smysl [in Russian]