The article dwells upon the research of the protectionist measures role in the development of industrial and trade class as the basis of enterprise formation on the Ukrainian territory in 19th – early 20th.
Author described conditions of formation and features of industrial and commercial class in Ukraine in the early 19th century. It was found that numerically insignificant class of industrial and commercial bourgeoisie enjoyed the highest patronage from the government, which was the impetus for business and acted as a factor for strengthening economic and political dependence on government. Paper reveals the mechanism of state influence on the development of industrial and commercial areas and class of entrepreneurs through the prism of its instruments of customs and trade policies (export and import taxes, the system of customs taxes and charges, international treaty policy) and the so-called “internal” protection (adoption of industrial and trade legislation, implementation of fiscal, financial and compensation policies, development of industrial and commercial infrastructure, etc.).
Author systematized methods of government protectionism and found most significant ones for the development of the business class, which turned to be instruments of tax incentives, trade and legal privileges, export subsidies, expansion of industrial and commercial entrepreneurs’ rights, and also those ones that created preferential conditions only for individual financial and business groups, including industrial subsidies, public procurement, financial and credit mechanisms and so on. The estimation was done on the structural changes in the business class under the influence of protectionism in the end of 19th – early 20th century.
It was established that, on the one hand, the policy measures of state support significantly increased the number of entrepreneurs in the Ukrainian region, as evidenced by the volume of trade documents, on the other hand – the effects of protectionism included the monopolization of trade and industrial rights of individual socio-economic groups and restructuring of class entrepreneurs aimed at reduction of the peasant entrepreneurs’ role (on social grounds) and the gradual displacement of industrial and commercial centers of Ukrainian businessmen with the given preference to those who came from Russian regions (on a national basis).
Donik, O.M. (2007). Industrial entrepreneurship of the nobility in Ukraine (1861–1900). Problemy istorii Ukrainy XIX – pochatku XX st. – The problems in Ukrainian history in 19th – the beginning of the 20th century, 13, 103-117 [in Ukrainian].
Shevchenko, V.V. (2008). Business activities of bankers of Ukrianian South (19th – the beginning of 20th century). Problemy istorii Ukrainy XIX – p. XX st. – The problems in Ukrainian history in 19th – the beginning of the 20th century, 14, 103-117 [in Ukrainian].
Anan’ich, B.V. (1991). Banking houses in Russia (1860–1914): essays on the history of private enterprise. Lviv: Nauka [in Russian].
Shlyakhov, O.B. (2005). Entrepreneurs and entrepreneurship in the merchant Navy of the Ukrainian South short of the World War I. Problemy istorii Ukrainy XIX – p. XX st. – The problems in Ukrainian history in 19th – the beginning of the 20th century, 9, 154-164 [in Ukrainian].
Sygyda, G.A. (2010). The main forms of commercial activities of merchants in the South of Ukraine during the first half of the 19th century. Naukovi pratsi istorychnoho fakultetu Zaporizkoho natsionalnoho universytetu – Scientific works of department of history, Zaporizhzhia National University, 28, 56-59 [in Ukrainian].
Lyashenko, V.G. (1998). The history of entrepreneurship in Ukraine (1861–1917). Donetsk: DIEKhP [in Russian].
Temirova, N.R. (2003). Landowners of Ukraine in 1861–1917: the socio-economic evolution. Donetsk: Vyd-vo DoNU [in Ukrainian].
Krutikov, V.V. (1992). The bourgeoisie of Ukraine and the economic policy of the tsarist government in the post-reform period. Dnipropetrovsk: Vyd. DGU [in Ukrainian].
Levchenko, L.L. (2006). The merchant of Southern Ukraine in the late 18th – early 20th centuries: an overview of the archives on the research topic. Naukovi pratsi: istorychni nauky, 62, 49, 119-127 [in Ukrainian].
Lazanska, T.I. (1999). The history of entrepreneurship of Ukraine (based on the materials of the trading and industrial statistics of 19th century). Kyiv: Institute of history of Ukraine, National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine [in Ukrainian].
Terentyeva, N.O., Balabanov, K.V. (2008). Greeks in Ukraine: history and modernity: textbook. Kyiv: Akvilon-Plyus [in Ukrainian].
Zolotov, V.A. (1963). External trade of South Russia in the first half of the 19th century. Rostov-on-Don: Izd-vo Rost. un-ta [in Russian].
Khromov, P.A. (1950). Russia’s economic development in the end of 19th – the beginning of 20th century. Moscow: Gosudarst. izdatel’stvo [in Russian].
Reyent, O.P. (2003). Ukraine in the Imperial days (19th – the beginning of 20th century). Kyiv: Instytut istorii Ukrainy NAN Ukrainy [in Ukrainian].
Turchenko, F., Turchenko, G. (2003). Southern Ukraine: modernization, world war, revolution (late 19 century 1921): Historical essays. Kyiv: Geneza [in Ukrainian].
Bokhanov, A.N. (1992). The big bourgeoisie of Russia: the end of 19th century – 1914. Moscow: Nauka [in Russian].
Kulisher, I.M. (1920). Essays on financial science: in 2 vol. Petrograd, 2 [in Russian].
Kolokolov, E.F. (1847). Russian Empire Index of Laws for the merchants. Moscow [in Russian].
Perkhavko, V.B. (2008). The history of Russian merchant. Moscow: Veche [in Russian].
Leongard, A. (1855). Russian laws on trade and industry: a guide for trading estates. St.-Petersburg [in Russian].
Spasskii, P.Kh. (1910). History of Trade and Industry in Russia: in 3 volumes. St.-Petersburg [in Russian].
Vereshchagin, A.S., Khairtdinov, R.Kh. (2009). History of Russian entrepreneurship: from the beginnings to the early 20th century. Ufa: Iz-vo UGNTU [in Russian].
Ozerov, I.Kh. (1910). Fundamentals of financial science: lectures. Moscow [in Russian].
The Ministry of Finance. 1802–1902. Historical overview of the main activities of the Finance Department: in 2 parts. (1902). St.-Petersburg [in Russian].
Brandt, B.F. (1904). Financial policy and customs protection. St.-Petersburg [in Russian].
Factory Industry and Trade of Russia: with the application of general map of factory industry in the Russian Empire. (1896). St.-Petersburg: Ministerstvo finansov, Departament torgovli i manufaktur [in Russian].
Verkhovskii, N.V., Golubov, E.V., Rusinov, S.N. (1912). Collection of trade agreements, concluded by Russia with foreign states. St.-Petersburg: Ministerstvo torgovli i promyshlennosti [in Russian].