Relevant is the research of features of market relations formation and development in labour sphere in post-Soviet countries that chose the same Euro-integration path of development with Ukraine. Author provided trend analysis of the competitiveness index and sub-indices in selected countries. By identifying main problems and bottlenecks in the functioning of the selected countries’ labour market, we have established common and unique characteristics and, consequently, possible ways to mitigate the significant social risks.
Most acute among them are problem of inefficient employment, large-scale prevalence of informal employment, and inadequate system of labour compensation. Comparative analysis shows that for neighbouring countries that are not EU members (Ukraine and Moldova), a characteristic phenomenon is a significant and unjustified differentiation of wages and the incidence of illegal practices in the workplace. In addition to purely economic factors and the almost complete absence of the use of fiscal instruments, which could stimulate the use of the labour services in the economy’s formal sector, the weak control function of the respective bodies in these countries should be highlighted. Particularly acute problem of use of informal payments appears to be for Ukraine, which complicates the problem of social and labour sphere.
The author used the following methods: statistical, analogy, comparison. Proposed are the measures for the approximation of the minimal wage up to the European standards, reduction of informal employment, and improvement of the social protection system of the unemployed. It is proved that the regulation of the minimum wage, as the most essential regulator of the labour market, has both positive and negative characteristics and consequences for the social and labour sphere. For the comparative analysis of regulatory impacts of the minimum wage Moldova and Ukraine were chosen.
Author has studied the peculiarities of structural changes of employment in the neighbouring countries. This allowed validating the change in the sectoral ratios of employment in Ukraine, which is caused not only by economic factors, but also by the integration and disintegration processes, and it explains the phenomenon of deindustrialization and deagrarization of labour in Ukraine.
The global competitiveness report 2016–2017. World Economic Forum. URL: www.weforum.org
On status of salaries in the independent States of the region in 2015. (2016). The General Confederation of Trade Unions. Moscow. URL: http://vkp.ru/docs/47.html [in Russian]
Global wage report 2016/17: Wage inequality in the workplace International Labour Office. (2016). Geneva: ILO. URL: http://www.ilo.org/wcmsp5/groups/public/—dgreports/—dcomm/–publ/documents/publication/wcms_537846.pdf
Blyzniuk, V.V. (2016). Ukrainian labor market: historical challenges and new tasks. Ukr. socìum – Ukrainian society, 3, 58-71. URL: http://nbuv.gov.ua/UJRN/Usoc_2016_3_7 [in Ukrainian]
Statistical year book of the re public of Moldova. (2016). Chisinau: National Bureau of Statistics of the Republic of Moldova
Rojco, A. (2016). Justification of minimal quantum of wage in the Republic of Moldova. Economie şi Sociologie – Economy and Sociology, INCE, 3, 63-68
Rojco, A., Ivanov, S. (2016). Perfecţionarea si stemului de protecţie socială a Nomerilor în Republica Moldova. Creşterea economica in condiţiile globalizării – Economic growth in conditions of globalization, INCE, 2, 248-252 [in Romanian]
Official site of the State Statistics Service of Ukraine. URL: http://www.ukrstat.gov.ua/
Pogam, S. (1999). Exclusion: social instrumentalization and study results. Zhurnal sotsiologii i sotsialnoi antropologii. T. II. Spetsial’nyi vypusk: Sovremennaya frantsuzskaya sotsiologiya – Journal of sociology and social anthropology. Vol. II. Special issue: Modern French Sociology, 140-156 [in Russian]
Hart, K. (1973). Informal income opportunities and urban employment in Ghana. Journal of Modern African Studies, 11, 61-89
Fields, G.S. (1990). Labour market modelling and the urban informal sector: Theory and evidence. In D. Turnham, B. Salomé, A. Schwarz (Eds.), The informal sector revisited (pp. 49-69). Paris: Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development
Bechmann, U., Radeke, J. (2014, June). Measures to reduce informal employment in Moldova. German Economic Team Moldova. Policy Paper [PP/04/2014]. Berlin, Chisinau: German Economic Team Moldova. URL: https://get-moldau.de/download/policypapers/2014/PP_04_2014_en.pdf
The Scope and Main Characteristics of Informal Employment in Ukraine, Technical Note for the Government of Ukraine by the World Bank. (2011). World Bank. URL: http://siteresources.worldbank.org/UKRAINEINUKRAINIANEXTN/Resources/4556801310372404373/InformalEmploymentinUkraineEng.pdf
Rozhko, A., Stremenovskaia, Z. (2016). Informal employment in the Republic of Moldova: the scope and measures for its reduction. Creşterea economica in condiţiile globalizării – Economic growth in conditions of globalization, INCE, 2, 236-241 [in Russian]
Yuruk, Ya.I. (2015). Evaluation and comparative analysis of the stiffness of the Ukrainian legislation on employment protection. Ekonomìka ì prognozuvannâ – Economy and forecasting, 1, 23-39 [in Ukrainian]