Congnitive potential of practical paradigm in the study of academic culture


The article dwells upon the analysis of the practical paradigm possibilities in educational studios, in particular, in the study of academic culture. Author analyses directions of educational research within the framework of structural, functional and phenomenological paradigms. Paper suggests specifics of the educational phenomena analysis through the prism of their main theoretical positions. Paper descrides the sources and the main stages of the practical paradigm formation (L. Wittgenstein, M. Heidegger), the theoretical contribution of P. Bourdieu in the practical paradigm development (in particular, the development and interpretation of the concept of “habitus” as a system of convex transferable dispositions). The scientific and heuristic potential of the practical paradigm is substantiated. Author proves that concepts of “practice” and “practical approach” in the context of the academic culture study have not only theoretical value, but also provide a fundamentally new approach to the empirical study of the educational space. The role of educational practices that reveal the meaning of such components of academic culture as integrity, autonomy, justice, etc. is highlighted. In the diversity of approaches to the study of practice, two key ideas are identified which help to see the unity of the practical paradigm: the “background” nature and the “revealing” nature of everyday practices. Paper explains the conditions for application of the practical paradigm in the scientific field of the socio-humanitarian cycle, which are in particular relation to the study’s subject and object, which cannot be studied beyond the specific space, time and objective. It is concluded that the cognitive possibilities of the theory of practice allow to analyze the actions of the educational process subjects, opening new opportunities for understanding the motivation of their actions. The activity of a representative (social agent) with the indication of systemic and structural constraints, makes it possible to combine theoretical models of social reality of traditional subject-object models, thereby expanding the meaning of the concept “practice”.

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