The paper deals with transforming social systems and their reflection in the concepts and models of the corresponding processes. A new approach to modelling and research of large social systems was proposed. The author emphasises and describes qualitatively some aspects of the approach that are important for considering the transformation of society. The main feature of such systems is the following properties. Firstly, these systems operate in a small number of reasonably stable states. (In our approach, this is interpreted as so-called associative memory). Secondly, the evolution of such systems (actually, history for long periods) has an analogue in the learning process in models, when connections are established between the system elements. Furthermore, thirdly, the proposed approach was able to consider individuals’ internal properties (mentality) – participants in large social systems. New models of socio-economic systems are described, and an interpretation of their behaviour as trajectories on certain surfaces in the space of variables is given. The ways of transforming systems are explained: revolutionary, evolutionary and with a unique trajectory of transition. The classes are considered, into which the internal (mental) variables of individuals are divided. The internal representations of the individual from some slice of reality (in psychology, for example, this is called “internal plans”) are represented as a network of objects, concepts and the like, depending on the “object” and purpose of modelling. There are three networks (patterns, drawings) of descriptions: the actual state of affairs, presented in the form of a network; the state of things in the imagination of a particular individual and the desired (ideal) state of affairs in the imagination of a particular individual. The dynamics of changes in the parameters that characterise the individual depends on the state of the environment “externally” and on the “internal” mental variables and the above three ideas about the external environment. Adequate consideration of the external environment by representing and internal representations of surrounding individuals is possible. Such an approach is proposed when considering archetypes in the transformation of the social system. The problem of sustainable development of education and science systems is considered.
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