International experience of post-war reconstruction of the housing fund and solving the housing problems of IDPs
The article analyses the international experience of solving the housing problems of forcibly displaced persons during the post-war recovery of the economy and socio-humanitarian space. The author characterises the role of the state in developing strategies, determining priorities, consolidating efforts, and institutionally ensuring the process of restoring living space, rebuilding housing and social infrastructure, as well as ensuring control over the use of funds, residential premises, and structures, the use of technologies and standards of construction and reconstruction. National priorities have been determined in the organisation of measures to provide housing for victims of hostilities and forced migrants, prioritisation of reconstruction, and new construction tasks. The necessity of accumulation and optimal use of internal resources, as well as the expediency of attracting foreign investments and the use of external financial assistance for the reconstruction of living space, industrial and social infrastructure with observance of systematicity and compliance with the trends of structural, technological and social development, are argued. The paper clarifies the mechanisms of interaction between the government and private investors, stimulation of entrepreneurial activity, encouragement and support of citizens in their actions regarding the independent restoration of housing, and arrangement of adjacent territories. It was found that the excessive bureaucratisation of assessing the damage caused and drawing up an application for assistance significantly slowed down the process of restoring damaged housing, which caused additional budget costs for providing IDPs with temporary housing. Ignoring the historical and cultural differences of the inhabitants of different territories and the accumulation of socially vulnerable and marginal elements led to an increase in social tension at the local level, and people affected by the war formed a permanent dependence on state aid. The need to consider positive and negative foreign experiences in the state management of the post-war reconstruction of the country’s housing stock is substantiated.
National monitoring system report on the situation of internally displaced persons. (2019, March). Kyiv: International Organization for Migration. URL: https://ukraine.iom.int/sites/g/files/tmzbdl1861/files/documents/nms_round_13_eng.pdf
Sudachek, D. Post-war reconstruction of the Federal Republic of Germany. The Dnistrianskyi Centre. URL: https://dc.org.ua/news/reconstruction-germany [in Ukrainian]
Foreign experience of housing solutions and compensation for destroyed/damaged housing for IDPs. (2017). Shelter cluster Ukraine: housing, land and property rights technical working group. URL: https://reliefweb.int/report/ukraine/foreign-experience-housing-solutions-and-compensation-destroyeddamaged-housing-idps
Ivanov, S.V. (2019). Economic recovery and development of countries after armed conflicts and wars: Ukraine’s opportunities that have not lost yet. Ekon Ukr. – Economy of Ukraine, 1 (686), 75-89 [in Ukrainian]
Ensuring compensation and restitution, housing, and social protection of IDPs: European Experience (2020). Council of Europe Project “Internal displacement in Ukraine: building solutions”. Kyiv: Pravo. URL: https://rm.coe.int/comparing-analysis-idps-ukr/1680a08f30 [in Ukrainian]
Kosarevych, S. Post-war reconstruction of the Croatia. The Dnistrianskyi Centre. URL: https://dc.org.ua/news/reconstruction-croatia [in Ukrainian]
Egner, В. (2019). Housing policy since 1945. Bürger & Staat, 2-3, 94-100 [in German]
Vonyo, T. (2018). The Economic consequences of the war: west Germany’s growth miracle after 1945. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Wertheimer, R.G. (1958). The miracle of German housing in the postwar period. Land Economics, 34, 4, 338-345.
First Housing Act. (1950). Bundesgesetzblatt, 16, 83-88 [in German]
Hübl, L., Möller, P. (1997). Social housing in Germany. Is the task accomplished? Eduard Pestel Institute for Systems Research. Hannover, Bonn: DSL Bank [in German]
The equalisation of burdens act. (1952). Bundesgesetzblatt, 34, 445-533. URL: https://www.bgbl.de/xaver/bgbl/start.xav?start=%2F%2F*%5B%40attr_id%3D%27bgbl152s0446.pdf%27%5D#__bgbl__%2F%2F*%5B%40attr_id%3D%27bgbl152s0446.pdf%27%5D__1674149139967 [in German]
Law for the alleviation of urgent social emergencies (Emergency Aid Act). (1949). Munich: Süddeutscher Verla [in German]
Kohlhase, T. (2011). The development of building savings in the Federal Republic of Germany between 1949 and 1990. An institutional economic analysis. Inaugural dissertation to obtain a doctoral degree from the Faculty of Economics and Social Sciences at the University of Cologne. Köln-Lindenthal [in German]
Leick, V.R., Schreiber, M., Stoldt, H.-U. (2010, August 20). A new look at Germany’s postwar reconstruction. Spiegel International. URL: https://www.spiegel.de/international/germany/out-of-the-ashes-a-new-look-at-germany-s-postwar-reconstruction-a-702856.html
Second housing act (Housing and Family Homes Act). (1956, June 28). Bundesgesetzblatt, 30, 523-558. URL: https://www.bgbl.de/xaver/bgbl/start.xav?start=//*%5B@attr_id=%27bgbl156030.pdf%27%5D#__bgbl__%2F%2F*%5B%40attr_id%3D%27bgbl156030.pdf%27%5D__1674073858155 [in German]
Živić, D. (2005). Direct and migration-caused demographic losses during the Serbian armed aggression against Croatia. In: Population of Croatia – past development and perspectives (pp. 71-94). Zagreb: Institut društvenih znanosti Ivo Pilar [in Croatian]
London, A. (2003). Croatia. In Europe Review 2003/2004. The Economic and Business Report (pp. 70–78). London: Wolden Publishing Ltd.
Mesić, M., Bagić, D. (2011). Minority return in Croatia – Study of an Open Process. Zagreb: UNHCR. URL: https://www.refworld.org/docid/553a08424.html
An estimate of war damages in Croatia. Direct and indirect expenses of the war for the period 1991-2005, and a forecast to 2015 in domestic and international prices. URL: https://www.slobodanpraljak.com/knjige/an_estimate_of_war_damages_in_croatia.pdf
Report on return of displaced persons and refugees in the Republic of Croatia for the period 2000 – September 2003. (2003). Ministry for Public Works, Reconstruction and Construction.
Bežovan, G. (2009). Assessment of social housing programmes in Croatia as a part of residual social care. European Network for Housing Reaserch Conference on Changing Housing Markets: Integration and Segmentation (Prague, 28 July-1 August 2009).
Elden, D.E. (2004). Post-war reconstruction, resettlement and revitalisation in the Republic of Croatia. A thesis submitted to the graduate faculty of the University of Georgia in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree Master of Landscape Architecture. Athens, Georgia. URL: http://getd.libs.uga.edu/pdfs/elden_david_e_200412_mla.pdf
Rebosio Calderon, M., Karadzic, M., Makumi, C., Georgieva, S. (2016). Georgia. Transitioning from status to needs based assistance for Georgia IDPs: a poverty and social impact analysis. Washington, DC.: World Bank Group.
Danish Refugee Council. Durable housing solutions for IDPs: lessons learnt from Georgia and steps forward in Ukraine. (2018). Thematic Bulletin, 1. URL: https://old.mtot.gov.ua/wp-content/uploads/Thematic-Bulletin_Issue1_EN.pdf
Mooney, E. From solidarity to solutions: the government response to internal displacement in Georgia. In E. Ferris, E. Mooney Sh. Stark (Eds.), From Responsibility to Response: Assessing National Approaches to Internal Displacement (pp. 179-229). Washington, DC: The Brookings Institution – London School of Economics.